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PAE – Physical Address Extension

PAE (sometimes called PAE-X86) was first implemented by Intel in 1995 in certain models of the Pentium Pro. The PAE IA-32 architecture supports 4 additional address lines for memory selection, so physical address size increases from 32 bits to 36 bits. This enables 4Gb x 2*4 = 64Gb of physical memory to be accessed. The CPUID flag for PAE support is, naturally, PAE. Since then virtually every 32-bit CPU produced comes with PAE support. Even with a PAE-enabled CPU, the IPL32 programming model (IA32 flat memory mode) continues to be able to only see 4 Gb of memory. You need

Samsung F2FS

Flash-Friendly File System (F2FS) is a Linux-based log-structured flash file system which takes into account the characteristics of NAND flash memory-based storage devices such as solid-state disks, eMMC, and SD cards with an built-in FTL (flash translation layer). It was developed and is maintained and enhanced by Samsung Electronics. Other available Linux flash file systems, such as jffs2, ubifs and logfs, are targeted at raw flash devices. f2fs was merged into the Linux 3.8 kernel. F2FS is based on Log-structured File System (LFS), which supports versatile “flash-friendly” features. The design has been focused on addressing the fundamental issues in LFS,

UEFI Install OEL 6.3 on Lenovo T430

I recently UEFI-installed Oracle Enterprise linux (OEL) on a Lenovo T430 that had the default Intel graphics card. In both graphical and text install modes, the OEL install screens were seriously messed up. I choose to install using the graphics mode because I am very familar with that mode from installing RHEL over the years. Other than the messed up screen, the install went smoothly. Upon rebooting OEL, the screen was still messed up. Even in text mode at run level 1, the problem persisted. However if I switched to the lasted UEK – 2.6.32-279.9.1 – the screen stablized and

Lenovo T430, T530 Now Support UEFI Secure Boot

In this post, I discuss the new Secure Boot options made available on the Lenovo T430, T430i, T530, and T530i laptops as a result of the 2.05 firmware update.

Tickless Linux Kernels

Linux now uses a tickless kernel by default. Before the advent of the tickless kernel, idle kernels woke themselves up (interrupted) at a rate of 100 Hz, 250 Hz or 1000 Hz, depending on how they were configured, to look for something to do. When interrupted, the kernel queried the CPU about the processes that it was executing, and used the results for process accounting and load balancing. This is known as the timer tick and the kernel performed this interrupt regardless of CPU power state. The practical result of this design meant that on systems implementing idle CPU power