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Configuring IP Dynamic Port Ranges

As you are probably aware, IP port numbers are 16 bit unsigned integers in the range 0 to 65535. IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) manages these port numbers. See the IANA Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry for more information. IANA specifies the range 49152 to 65535 be used for dynamic (AKA private) ports. From the above referenced document: Port numbers are assigned in various ways, based on three ranges: System Ports (0-1023), User Ports (1024-49151), and the Dynamic and/or Private Ports (49152-65535); the difference uses of these ranges is described in RFC6335. System Ports are assigned by

Access A VMware Virtual Disk from Linux

Recently I needed to recover some data off a VMware Workstation virtual disk using Linux. As you probably know, VMware Workstation (and VMware vSphere) represents a physical disk by a virtual disk whose backing store is one or more VMDK files. VMDK (Virtual Machine Disk) is a documented file format, which uses the file extension .vmdk. It describes containers for virtual hard disk drives to be used in virtual machines like VMware Workstation or VirtualBox. Initially developed by VMware for its virtual appliance products, nowadays VMDK is an open format. Fortunately, VMware provides a simple utility, vmware-mount, for mounting a

Retrieve Microsoft Windows Product Key From UEFI Shell

With Microsoft Windows v3.0 activation, the product key is now stored in the UEFI firmware instead of being printed on a COA sticker. Specifically, on UEFI firmware, the individualized product key is stored in the ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) table call MSDM ( Microsoft Data Management). This table contains the information necessary to enable individualized OEM activation. Note that generic activation information is stored in a separate ACPI table named SLIC (Software Licensing). I will not be discussing that particular table in this post. This utility is quite simple. It locates a pointer to the list of ACPI

Shell String Concatenation

Many people are unaware that string concatenation using the += syntax is fully supported in modern versions of both the Bash and Korn shells Here is a simple example which demonstrates the syntax: str=”Hello” $ str+=” ” $ str+=”World” $ echo $str Hello World $ If you use this syntax with “numbers”, you end up with a string that looks like a number but is not a number. $ a=2 $ a+=4 $ echo $a $ 24