Sudo is a mechanism that enables a system administrator to give regular users permission to execute certain commands that they would normally not be allowed to use. Which user can do what is defined by the contents of /etc/sudoers. Typically you should use visudo to edit this file. So how do you prevent a user from using sudo to run specific commands in a subdirectory like /usr/bin but allow the user to run other commands in that same directory? Here is one way of doing it: # list of commands alice may not run Cmnd_Alias BANNED = /usr/bin/su, /usr/bin/ksh, usr/bin/zsh
There are two common UEFI Shells available. The first is the older EFI Shell (see the TianoCore EdkShellBinPkg) and the second is the UEFI 2.0 Shell (See theTianoCore ShellBinPkg.) Most current UEFI implementations seem to use the older shell. In the EFI Shell, you invoke “help utility” to get help text for a particular utility. You can also do “help utility -b” to display the help text screen by screen. Just using “help” produces a sorted list of all available shell commands. In the UEFI Shell 2.0, when you invoke “help utility” to get help text for a particular utility,
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Recently I needed to work down at the UEFI Shell level. The platform I was on was a BioStar TZ77XE4 which, by the way, was recently certified for Microsoft Windows 8 Client Family, x64. No UEFI Shell was installed, so I UEFI-installed Fedora 17 x64 and copied the pre-compiled UEFI Shell from the UDK 2010 to /boot/efi, i.e. the mount point of the ESP filesystem. Note that while BioStar say that a UEFI Shell should be named ShellX64.efi, I found that Shell.efi also worked and that is what I used. The UEFI Shell itself is just another UEFI application. It
Fedora 17 added support for /etc/os-release. Here is the contents of that file: # cat /etc/os-release NAME=Fedora VERSION=”17 (Beefy Miracle)” ID=fedora VERSION_ID=17 PRETTY_NAME=”Fedora 17 (Beefy Miracle)” ANSI_COLOR=”0;34″ CPE_NAME=”cpe:/o:fedoraproject:fedora:17″ A number of fields are specified, some mandatory, some optional. CPE_NAME is a stylized name for the operating system, following the proposed Common Platform Enumeration specification. This field is optional. This file is part of the generic-release-17-1.noarch package.